Experiential Learning involves either experiencing or doing something, followed by reflection on this activity and coming to a new understanding as a result. It encompasses both the “experience” and the subsequent analysis and integration of this new knowledge. The learning is unique to each learner, as each individual experiences activities differently. As illustrated by the image below, traditional lecture style teaching allows minimal retention of knowledge, but participating and learning by doing are significantly more effective methods. Experiential learning can occur in the classroom through hands-on activities, role-playing, games, group work, etc.. It can also occur in the field through practicums, apprenticeships, volunteer work and field trips.
When discussing experiential learning, many refer to Kolb (1984) who described the Experiential Learning Cycle. In this theory, learning is thought to progress through four stages: concrete experience (new learning experience), reflective observation (reflection on new experience related to current understanding), abstract conceptualization (new ideas of understanding occur) and active experimentation (applying and testing new knowledge). Each of these stages builds from the others and is necessary for real learning to occur.
What are the implications for my teaching?
In my own field, much of the learning is experiential as nursing is by nature very practical and hands-on. Students in a nursing program use simulations and hands-on activities to practice skills, like wound care and catheterization. Students rotate through many practicums on various floors of the hospital and have several apprenticeships where they are paired with a registered nurse. As a clinical nursing instructor, the experiences are already presented to the learners, so it is my job to support the reflection, conceptualization and testing processes associated with them.
The article Best Practices in Experiential Learning describes the instructor as a resource, cheerleader and facilitator in these situations. This article outlines experiential learning methods in depth, but some highlights include:
- creating a safe space free of judgement and establishing rapport with students
- encouraging the bigger perspective
- getting students to examine their own values
- encouraging reflection
- allowing students to safely step outside their comfort zones
- matching students with meaningful and useful experiences
- providing clear expectations
- linking various concepts together
- encouraging sharing with peers
Some examples in my own work as an instructor would be debriefing in post-conference to discuss issues encountered during the day, encouraging deeper journaling and posing questions to encourage analysis of what was experienced.
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (Vol. 1). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Merriam, L. and Bierema, S. (2013). Adult learning: linking theory and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.